There are a number of important improvements and extensions to the generic model in Ada 95. The extensions are mainly concerned with providing appropriate new parameter mechanisms to match the additional functionality provided by tagged and other new types. In addition problems with flaws in the contract model are cured.
The main changes are
As mentioned in Part One, there are a number of new forms of generic parameter in Ada 95. Some of these are introduced to correspond to new types such as tagged types, modular types and decimal types. In addition there are new forms for derived types in general and for package parameters; these simplify program composition. All these new forms were introduced in Part One and are discussed in detail in the following sections.
As was discussed in II.11, Ada 83 had a serious violation of the contract model because of the lack of distinction between unconstrained and constrained formal parameters.
The exact distinction is between subtypes for which objects can be declared (without giving any constraints directly or from an initialization) and those for which they cannot. The former category covers scalar subtypes such as Integer, constrained array and record subtypes and unconstrained record subtypes which have default discriminants. The term definite is introduced for these subtypes.
Ada 95 cures this flaw in the contract model by requiring that the formal parameter include an unknown discriminant part (<>) if an indefinite subtype is to be allowed as actual parameter. In this case the body cannot use the subtype in a context requiring a definite subtype.
On the other hand the existing notation without (<>) now indicates that the actual parameter must be definite.
The two notations are illustrated by the following example
generic type Key(<>) is private; type Item is private; package Keyed_Index is ... end;
The subtype String, because it is an unconstrained array subtype, could be associated with Key, but not with Item. Within the generic, Key must not be used to declare a component or uninitialized object.
This is an incompatibility as mentioned in I-4.4 but straightforward to detect and fix. If existing instantiations fail to compile under Ada 95, then the generic unit must be modified to specify that the relevant generic formal allows indefinite subtypes.
This new distinction between definite and indefinite parameters eliminates the primary source of situations in Ada 83 where an otherwise legal instantiation is made illegal by a particular usage pattern of a formal type within the body of the generic unit. In other words this distinction eliminates the major gap in the generic contract model of Ada 83.
Having plugged the major gap in the Ada 83 generic contract model, Ada 95 goes further and ensures that the legality of an instantiation never depends on the parameter usage patterns present in the generic body.
This is achieved in various ways. We have just seen how the addition of further information in the formal parameter enables a satisfactory distinction between usage patterns to be made in the case of definite and indefinite subtypes.
However, it is impracticable to impose all pattern matching requirements through the parameter matching rules. Another approach is to impose certain restrictions in the generic body which in essence assume the "worst" regarding the possible instantiations. An example is that if the generic parameter is nonlimited then all the components in an extension of it also have to be nonlimited. This rule is checked in the instance. For further details of this and other ways in which the contract is ensured see [RM95 12.3]
The general principle is to assume the "best" in the generic specification and then to check the assumptions again at the instantiation, and to assume the "worst" in the body so that legality does not depend upon the instantiation. This of course means that full freedom is not possible in the body but the constraints will not generally be found irksome. A common workaround is to move material from the generic body into the private part.
In conclusion, a tight contract model has several desirable properties. It allows implementations to share generics more easily, it leads to the early detection of programming errors, and it eliminates the need to recheck all existing instantiations when a new body is compiled. Ada 95 strengthens the contract model by requiring that the specification of a generic formal private type indicate whether a corresponding actual may be an unconstrained composite subtype. This simplifies the checking required when a new generic body is compiled, since its legality will not depend on the nature of the existing instantiations.
As pointed out in [DoD 90] in the discussion of Study Topic S4.4-B(2), both tight and loose contract models are desirable, each for its own reasons. This tension has been resolved in Ada 95, by specifying that certain checks in the generic specification are only performed at instantiation time.
Our general goal has been to aim towards the ideal situation whereby within the body of the generic, all checks are performed when the generic body is compiled, and these checks fail if any possible instantiation could fail the checks. This goal has generally been achieved, (although some errors in the instance are detected at runtime; an example is the use of the Access attribute, see 12.3). Ada 95 thus achieves the prime goals associated with a tight contract model, and yet still provides the flexibility required to use generics to their best advantage.
Improving the contract model eases the problems of code sharing for those implementations that use this technique. However, it should be noted that many of the applications of generics where code sharing seemed important can now be done using other techniques such as access to subprogram parameters and tagged types. Moreover, we have not provided an explicit pragma as suggested by the Requirements to control whether code sharing should be used or not since an implementation can use the pragma Optimize as suggested in [AARM 2.8(27)].
Additional formal types are provided corresponding to unsigned integer types (modular types) and to decimal fixed point types as already mention in 3.3.
The modular types form a subclass of the integer types. They have additional operations such as the logical operations that do not apply to all integer types. As a consequence a signed integer type cannot match a formal modular type. On the other hand modular types behave differently to signed integer types with regard to overflow since by definition they wrap around. And so a modular type cannot match a formal signed integer type.
Similarly the decimal types form a subclass of the fixed point types. Again they are a distinct subclass to the ordinary fixed point types and one cannot match the other. The reason is that an implementation is allowed to use a significantly different representation (such as packed decimal) for decimal types as opposed to ordinary fixed types; it would impose unacceptable inefficiencies on implementations using shared generic bodies to accommodate both kinds of actual via one kind of formal.
Access types are considerably extended in Ada 95 as discussed in 3.7. They may access general objects not created by allocators; they may be marked as constant and there are also access to subprogram types. Accordingly, the matching rules for generic access parameters are adapted to allow for the proper matching of these other forms.
For example if the formal type is
type A is access constant T;then the actual type must also be a general access type with the modifier constant. Similarly, if the formal type is
type A is access all T;then the actual type must also be a general access type (with all but not constant) that has the type T as its accessed type.
In the case of access to subprogram types, the profiles of the formal and actual types have to be mode conformant (see 6.2). This is the same category of conformance as for renaming of subprograms (not renaming bodies) and thus naturally continues the general model that generic parameter matching is renaming.
Note that there are restrictions on the use of the Access attribute in a generic body; these are different for access to subprogram and access to object types. The objective is of course to ensure that an access cannot be created to an entity at an inner level.
In the case of an access to subprogram type, the access attribute is not allowed to be applied to a subprogram in a generic body if the access type is external to the generic unit because of worst case considerations. A possible workaround is to move the declaration of the subprogram P to the private part and to declare a constant in the private part thus
P_Access: constant Global_Access_Type := P'Access;and this will then be checked in the instance of the specification.
In the case of access to object types a different approach is taken. The access attribute is allowed in a generic body but the check occurs dynamically if the access type is external to the body. This check is therefore similar to that for anonymous access parameters and Program_Error is raised if it fails.
The different approach relates to the fact that anonymous access types are not allowed for subprogram parameters as discussed in 3.7.2. Also the workaround applicable to access to subprogam types of moving the use of Access to the specification cannot usually be applied in the case of access to object types.
The class-wide programming features of Ada 95 reduce the need to use generics to deal with different types derived from the same root type. However, class-wide programming does not address the important capability, only provided by generics, of defining a new data structure that is parameterized by one or more component types. It is instructive to note that the object oriented programming languages C++, Eiffel, and Modula-3 all include some sort of generic or template mechanism in their latest incarnations.
A new kind of generic formal parameter is provided for derived types. As mentioned above, we see an important role for generics in the definition of new data structures parameterized by one or more component types. For linked data structures, it is often necessary to take advantage of the structure of the components to efficiently implement the (composite) data structure. By using a generic formal derived type, the implementation of the generic can take advantage of the structure and operations of the ancestor type specified for the formal derived type definition.
In the remainder of this section we consider formal (untagged) derived types; tagged types are considered in the next section.
The new notation is
type T is new S;which indicates that the actual type must be derived directly or indirectly from S.
For a generic formal derived type, the primitive operations available on the type in the generic are determined by the specified ancestor type. Analogous to the rule for formal numeric types, the primitive operations available on an untagged formal derived type use the ancestor operation implementations, even if they have been overridden or hidden for the actual type. This rule is necessary for untagged types, because there is no limitation on the kinds of alterations made to the subtype or mode of the formal parameters when overriding a subprogram inherited by derivation. This contrast strongly with tagged types where the whole essence of the concept is to use replaced operations as described in the next section.
Generic formal derived types permit generic units to be parameterized by a user-defined class - the set of all types derived from the parent type specified in the generic parameter declaration. Within the generic template, the operations of the specified parent type are available. This provides support for user-defined classes that is comparable to that available for language-defined classes, such as discrete, integer, fixed and float.
In a sense therefore the formal parameter notation
type T is range <>;is approximately equivalent to
type T is new root_integer;although we cannot actually write the latter.
One use of generic formal derived types is to parameterize a generic with a record type but without having to introduce a specific notation for formal record types which would be unwieldy.
The following example is a generic package for providing I/O for types in a user-defined rational class.
package Rational_Arithmetic is -- this package defines a rational number type type Rational is private; function "+" (Left, Right: Rational) return Rational; ... end Rational_Arithmetic; with Rational_Arithmetic; use Rational_Arithmetic; with Text_IO; generic -- this package provides I/O for any type derived from Rational type Num is new Rational; package Rational_IO is procedure Get(File: in Text_IO.File_Type; Item: out Num; Width: in Text_IO.Field := 0); procedure Put(File: in Text_IO.File_Type; Item: in Num; Fore: in Text_IO.Field; Aft: in Text_IO.Field; Exp: in Text_IO.Field); end Rational_IO;
The generic formal parameter Num will only match Rational and its derivatives. Since Rational and its derivatives all share the primitive operations of the Rational type, those operations are available within Rational_IO for implementing the Get and Put subprograms.
Other forms of formal parameters apply to tagged types. Thus
type T is tagged private;which simply indicates that the actual type can be any tagged type, and
type T is new S with private;which indicates that the actual type can be any extension of the type S (or the type S itself).
This last form is very important. A form of multiple inheritance is obtained by defining a generic package that extends a formal type with additional components and operations (see 4.6.2). Because type extension is only permitted for tagged types, allowing the reserved word tagged in a generic formal private type declaration makes it clear in the parameter specification that extension might be performed. But note that it is possible to declare a type extension (of a parameter) only in the generic specification; it is not allowed in the generic body. However, as illustrated in 4.6.2 this fits in with typical patterns of use.
The above restriction is an interesting example of the best and worst case contract principle. The underlying rule that we must not violate is that a type extension must be accessible from the parent type declaration as discussed in 4.3. It is thus necessary that an extension in any instantiation also satisfies this rule. In the case of the specification we assume the best and allow an extension. At the point of the instantiation the resulting specification is checked to ensure that the extension does not violate the rule. In the case of the body the general contract principle is that the body must work for any instantiation and accordingly it is not permitted to allow an error to be discovered in the body for a particular instantiation. Thus we assume the worst and forbid any extension since the instantiation might be at a deeper level at which an extension would violate the accessibility rule. This restriction may seem a burden but a commonly applicable workaround is simply to move the type extension and its operations to the private part. An example where this would be necessary is discussed in 4.4.4.
For tagged types, the primitive operations use the implementations defined for the actual type, though this is expressed for consistency in terms of the normal dispatching behavior of the operations of the parent type. For a tagged type it is possible to use the overriding definitions, because these overriding operations must be subtype conformant with the inherited one.
A further refinement is that the formal type can be declared as abstract. In such a case the actual type can also be abstract but it need not. If the formal is abstract then no objects can be declared.
The parameter matching rules are designed to ensure that abstract subprograms are never called. If a type is abstract it does not follow that all its primitive subprograms are abstract. Non-dispatching calls are allowed in the generic unit on only those primitive operations of the formal type which are not abstract. In order to ensure that any instantiation still correctly works it is necessary that the corresponding primitive operations of the actual type are also not abstract. Consider again the package P in 7.4.
generic type Parent is abstract new Limited_Controlled with private; package P is type T is new Parent with private; ... private type T is new Parent with record -- additional components end record; procedure Finalize(Object: in out T); end P;then although Limited_Controlled is abstract, its primitive operations such as Finalize are not abstract and thus calls on Finalize are allowed in the body. For this to always work it is essential that the actual type has not replaced the inherited procedure Finalize by an abstract one [RM95 3.9.3]. The following is thus illegal
type Nasty is abstract new Limited_Controlled with null record; procedure Finalize(Object: in out Nasty) is abstract; ... package Q is new P(Parent => Nasty); -- illegal
Class-wide programming and type extension, in combination with generic units, provides many useful facilities.
Generic units may be parameterized by user-defined classes, allowing abstractions to be built around such classes. In this example, Any_Account will be matched by any type derived from Account_With_Interest. Within the template, the primitive operations of Account_With_Interest are available.
generic type Account_Type(<>) is new Account_With_Interest with private; package Set_Of_Accounts is procedure Add_New_Account(A: in Account_Type); procedure Remove_Account(A: in Account_Type); function Balance_Of_Accounts return Money; ... -- other operations (e.g. an iterator) end Set_Of_Accounts;
This generic package could be instantiated with a specific derivative of Account_With_Interest, in which case it would be a homogeneous set of such accounts. Alternatively, the generic could be instantiated with a class-wide type like Account_With_Interest'Class, in which case it would allow a heterogeneous set of accounts. The notation (<>) specifies that the actual account type may have any number of discriminants, or be a class-wide type (that is, it can be indefinite).
The final new kind of generic formal parameter is the formal package. A formal package parameter matches any instance of a specified generic package.
Generic formal packages are appropriate in two different circumstances. In the first circumstance, the generic is defining additional operations, or a new abstraction, in terms of some preexisting abstraction defined by some preexisting generic. This kind of "layering" of functionality can be extremely cumbersome if all of the types and operations defined by the preexisting generic must be imported into the new generic. The generic formal package provides a direct way to import all of the types and operations defined in an instance of the preexisting generic.
In other words, generic formal packages allow generics to be parameterized by other generics, which allows for safer and simpler composition of generic abstractions. In particular it allows for one generic to easily extend the abstraction provided by another generic, without requiring the programmer to enumerate all the operations of the first in the formal part of the second. A simple example of the use of this technique was illustrated by the package Generic_Complex_Vectors in II.11.
In more elaborate circumstances, there may need to be several formal packages. It then proves convenient to augment the notation
with package P is new Q(<>);which indicates that the actual parameter corresponding to P can be any package which has been obtained by instantiating Q by the notation
with package R is new Q(P1, P2, ...);which indicates that the actual package corresponding to R must have been instantiated with the given parameters.
Returning to our example of complex numbers, we can now write a package which exports standard mathematical functions operating on complex numbers and which takes two packages as parameters. One package defines the complex numbers (as in II.11) and the other package is the standard package Generic_Elementary_Functions which provides mathematical functions on normal real (that is not complex) numbers. We write
with Generic_Complex_Numbers; with Generic_Elementary_Functions; generic with package Complex_Numbers is new Generic_Complex_Numbers(<>); with package Elementary_Functions is new Generic_Elementary_Functions(Complex_Numbers.Float_Type); package Generic_Complex_Functions is use Complex_Numbers; function Sqrt(X: Complex) return Complex; function Log (X: Complex) return Complex; function Exp (X: Complex) return Complex; function Sin (X: Complex) return Complex; function Cos (X: Complex) return Complex; end Generic_Complex_Functions;
The actual packages must be instantiations of Generic_Complex_Numbers and Generic_Elementary_Functions respectively. Note that both forms of formal package are used. Any instantiation of Generic_Complex_Numbers is allowed but the instantiation of Generic_Elementary_Functions must have Complex_Numbers.Float_Type as its actual parameter. This ensures that both packages are instantiated with the same floating type.
Note carefully that we are using the formal exported from the first instantiation as the required parameter for the second instantiation. The formal parameters are only accessible in this way when the default form (<>) is used. Finally, instantiations might be
package Long_Complex_Numbers is new Generic_Complex_Numbers(Long_Float); package Long_Elementary_Functions is new Generic_Elementary_Functions(Long_Float); package Long_Complex_Functions is new Generic_Complex_Functions (Long_Complex_Numbers, Long_Elementary_Functions);
A second circumstance where a generic formal package is appropriate is when the same abstraction is implemented in several different ways. For example, the abstraction of a "mapping" from a key type to a value type is very general, and admits to many different implementation approaches. In most cases, a mapping abstraction can be characterized by a key type, a value type, and operations for adding to the mapping, removing from the mapping, and applying the mapping. This represents a "signature" for the mapping abstraction, and any combination of types and operations that satisfy such a signature syntactically and semantically can be considered a mapping.
A generic package can be used to define a signature, and then a given implementation for the signature is established by instantiating the signature. Once the signature is defined, a generic formal package for this signature can be used in a generic formal part as a short-hand for a type and a set of operations.
We can thus define a generic package Mapping that defines the signature of a mapping, and then other generics can be defined with a formal package parameter. The mapping package might be
generic -- define signature for a Mapping type Mapping_Type is limited private; type Key is limited private; type Value is limited private; with procedure Add_Pair(M: in out Mapping_Type; K: in Key; V: in Value); with procedure Remove_Pair(M: in out Mapping_Type; K: in Key; V: in Value); with procedure Apply(M: in out Mapping_Type; K: in Key; V: out Value); package Mapping is end;
We can now define a generic that takes an instance of a Mapping as a parameter; for example
generic with package Some_Mapping is new Mapping(<>); with procedure Do_Something_With_Value(V: Some_Mapping.Value) procedure Do_Something_With_Key(K: Some_Mapping.Key); procedure Do_Something_With_Key(K: Some_Mapping.Key) is V: Some_Mapping.Value; begin -- translate key to value, and then do something with value Some_Mapping.Apply(K, V); Do_Something_With_Value(V); end Do_Something_With_Key;
The reader will note the tedious repetition of Some_Mapping in the generic unit. This can be avoided since a use clause is permitted in a generic formal part in Ada 95; the specification can thus be written as
generic with package Some_Mapping is new Mapping(<>); use Some_Mapping; with procedure Do_Something_With_Value(V: Value) procedure Do_Something_With_Key(K: Key);with similar changes to the generic body.
Another and more mathematical example is provided by the following which defines the signature of a group.
generic type Group_Element is private; Identity: in Group_Element; with function Op(X, Y: Group_Element) return Group_Element with function Inverse(X: Group_Element) return Group_Element; package Group_Signature is end;
The following generic function applies the group operation to the given group element the specified number of times. If the right operand is negative, the inverse of the result is returned; if it is zero, the identity is returned.
generic with package Group is new Group_Signature(<>); use Group; function Power(X: Group_Element; N: Integer) return Group_Element; function Power(X: Group_Element; N: Integer) return Group_Element is Result: Group_Element := Identity; begin for I in 1 .. abs N loop Result := Op(Result, X); end loop; if N < 0 then return Inverse(Result); else return Result; end if; end Power;
The following instantiation ensures that the long complex numbers are a group over addition
package Long_Complex_Addition_Group is new Group_Signature(Group_Element => Long_Complex.Complex, Identity => (0.0, 0.0); Op => Long_Complex."+"; Inverse => Long_Complex."-");and then finally we can instantiate the power function for the long complex addition group as follows
function Complex_Multiplication is new Power(Long_Complex_Addition_Group);
Note that we have assumed that the type Complex is not a private type so that the aggregate is available for the identity element.
A small change is that the matching of subtypes in array and access types now requires static matching as mentioned in 3.10.
Another minor change is that generic actual parameters are evaluated in an arbitrary order consistent with any dependences whereas in Ada 83 all default parameters were evaluated after all explicit parameters. The relaxation of this ordering requirement brings the rules for generic parameters into line with those for ordinary subprogram parameters.
There were a number of requirements in this area. The study topic
S4.4-A(1) - Generic Formal Parametersis satisfied by the provision of extra kinds of generic parameters (for derived types and especially package parameters) to enable better abstraction and composition.
The study topic
S4.4-B(2) - Tighten the "Contract Model"has been met by the provision of separate templates for definite and indefinite types and other modifications to the rules as discussed in 12.1.
R4.4-B(1) - Dependence of Instantiations on Bodieshas also been met by the improvements to the contract model.
R4.4-C(1) - Generic Code Sharingis discussed in 12.1 where it is noted that the pragma Optimize can be used to control whether sharing is required or not.